Quetzalcoatl went to Mictlan, the underworld, and created fifth-world mankind from the bones of the previous races (with the help of Cihuacoatl), using his own blood, from a wound he inflicted on his earlobes, calves, tongue, and penis, to imbue the bones with new life. Much of the idea of Cortés being seen as a deity can be traced back to the Florentine Codex written down some 50 years after the conquest. It is also suggested that he was a son of Xochiquetzal and Mixcoatl. ... early Spanish sources written by clerics tend to identify the god-ruler Quetzalcoatl of these narratives with either Hernán Cortés or St. Thomas—an identification which is also a source of diversity of opinions about the nature of Quetzalcoatl. This talisman was a conch shell cut at the cross-section and was likely worn as a necklace by religious rulers, as such objects have been discovered in burials in archaeological sites throughout Mesoamerica,[7] and potentially symbolized patterns witnessed in hurricanes, dust devils, seashells, and whirlpools, which were elemental forces that had significance in Aztec mythology. He could also appear in human form as a warrior wearing a tall, cone-shaped crown or cap made of ocelot skin and a pendant fashioned of jade or a conch shell. Although probably not exactly a depiction of the same feathered serpent deity worshipped in classic and post-classic periods, it shows the continuity of symbolism of feathered snakes in Mesoamerica from the formative period and on, for example in comparison to the Maya Vision Serpent shown below. Latter-day Saint author Brant Gardner, after investigating the link between Quetzalcoatl and Jesus, concluded that the association amounts to nothing more than folklore. Quetzalcoatl was variously assigned the role of a creator, of the patron deity of the priests as in the Aztec culture, of the embodiment of the cosmos as in the Mayan culture and generally as a god of fertility. He was one of the most human-loving of the gods in the Aztec pantheon. Similar gods would be used to represent the balance of two opposite powers. But also, Quetzalcoatl, the Feathered Serpent, is one of the primary gods who gave life to other deities, and … In the episode "Damnesia You," Xavier winds up in the Aztec world and is immediately (and unsuccessfully) sacrificed for insulting the Sun God, and during the sacrifice the Aztecs humorously fail to pronounce his name. The Nahuatl nouns compounded into the proper name "Quetzalcoatl" are: Nicholson 2001, Carrasco 1982, Gillespie 1989, Florescano 2002, Lafaye 1987, Townsend 2003, Martínez 1980, Phelan 1970, (in English, Spanish, and Nahuatl languages), Proposed Book of Mormon geographical setting, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Fate/Grand Order - Absolute Demonic Front: Babylonia, The Secrets of the Immortal Nicholas Flamel, "Evidence of Mushroom Worship in Mesoamerica", "New Taxonomical and Ethnomycological Observations on, "Readings in Classical Nahuatl: The Death of Quetzalcoatl", "The Complete New York City Horror Movie Marathon! Every school child in Mexico studies Quetzalcoatl and knows the importance of his role. He arrived in Tenochtitlan on November 8, 1519, where he was peacefully greeted by Emperor … Quetzalcoatl definition is - a chief Toltec and Aztec god identified with the wind and air and represented by a feathered serpent. Animals thought to represent Quetzalcoatl include resplendent quetzals, rattlesnakes (coatl meaning "serpent" in Nahuatl), crows, and macaws. Mexico's flagship airline Aeroméxico has a Boeing 787-9 Dreamliner painted in a special Quezalcoatl livery. The famed Aztec Feathered Serpent God. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Quetzalcoatl was also the patron of the priests and the title of the twin Aztec high priests. As the god of learning, of writing, and of books, Quetzalcóatl was particularly venerated in the calmecac, religious colleges annexed to the temples, in which the future priests and the sons of the nobility were educated. Quetzalcóatl became the god of the morning and evening star, and his temple was the centre of ceremonial life in Tula. Last year it ranked th in the U.S. Social Security Administration list of most popular baby girl names. Quetzalcoatl is a Mesoamerican deity whose name comes from the Nahuatl language and has the meaning of "feathered-serpent". In Aztec culture, depictions of Quetzalcoatl were fully anthropomorphic. Information and translations of Quetzalcoatl in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. The latter was acting as executioner, killing all of the rest of the gods as they sacrificed themselves as part of the creation of humanity. He was also the patron god of the Aztec priesthood, of learning and knowledge. [22], According to another version of the myth, Quetzalcoatl is one of the four sons of Ometecuhtli and Omecihuatl, the four Tezcatlipocas, each of whom presides over one of the four cardinal directions. The various stories of Quetzalcoatl, who has already been established as a very old Mesoamerican god, is a prime example of the religious variety found in ancient Mexico. QUETZALCOATL was one of the most powerful and multifaceted gods in Mesoamerican religions. [need quotation to verify] Codex drawings pictured both Quetzalcoatl and Xolotl wearing an ehēcacōzcatl around the neck. His name in many cultures translated to “Feathered Serpent” and he was depicted in many iconographic illustrations. To both Teotihuacan and Maya cultures, Venus was in turn also symbolically connected with warfare.[19]. Quetzalcóatl wandered down to the coast of the “divine water” (the Atlantic Ocean) and then immolated himself on a pyre, emerging as the planet Venus. Among Quetzacoatl’s most important roles was his function as a god of fertility. Over the South presides the Blue Tezcatlipoca, Huitzilopochtli, the god of war. Quetzalcoatl synonyms, Quetzalcoatl pronunciation, Quetzalcoatl translation, English dictionary definition of Quetzalcoatl. A supreme god of the Aztecs, Tezcatlipoca which means “smoking mirror” was the patron god of sorcery and war and was the patron god of the ruling dynasty. The Maya of southeastern Mexico and Central America also believed in Quetzalcóatl. Members of this confederacy from Tlaxcala, Puebla, and Oaxaca provided the Spaniards with the army that first reclaimed the city of Cholula from its pro-Aztec ruling faction, and ultimately defeated the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan (Mexico City). The archaeological record shows that after the fall of Teotihuacan that marked the beginning of the epi-classic period in Mesoamerican chronology around 600 AD, the cult of the feathered serpent spread to the new religious and political centers in central Mexico, centers such as Xochicalco, Cacaxtla and Cholula. During this period, Quetzalcoatl was transformed into the god of the morni… But the god of the night sky, Tezcatlipoca, expelled him from Tula by performing feats of black magic. God of the Month: Quetzalcoatl Get acquainted with the Mesoamerican deity, Quetzalcoatl, whose incredible powers saw him create universe, earth, sea and sky, as well as our distant human ancestors. In Xochicalco, depictions of the feathered serpent are accompanied by the image of a seated, armed ruler and the hieroglyph for the day sign 9 Wind. Some legends describe him as opposed to human sacrifice[24] while others describe him practicing it.[25][26]. Quetzalcoatl became the ruler of the subsequent creation "Sun of Water", and Tezcatlipoca destroyed the third creation "The Sun of Wind" by striking down Quetzalcoatl. [40][41] The deity has been featured as a character in the manga and anime series Yu-Gi-Oh! Quetzalcoatl is not a religious symbol in the Latter-day Saint faith, and is not taught as such, nor is it in their doctrine that Quetzalcoatl is Jesus. As the wind, he is … This confederacy engaged in almost seventy-five years of nearly continuous conflict with the Aztec Empire of the Triple Alliance until the arrival of Cortés. Quetzalcoatl is the "White bearded God" or the "Serpent God" from the legend of Quetzalcoatl of the ancient Aztecs. During the epi-classic period, a dramatic spread of feathered serpent iconography is evidenced throughout Mesoamerica, and during this period begins to figure prominently at sites such as Chichén Itzá, El Tajín, and throughout the Maya area. [12] In his form as the morning star, Venus, he is also depicted as a harpy eagle. The Romans and Greeks took the Egyptian gods and goddesses and renamed them along with making a few of their own. There are several stories about the birth of Quetzalcoatl. Quetzalcóatl (pron. His sea voyage to the east should probably be connected with the invasion of Yucatán by the Itzá, a tribe that showed strong Toltec features. On the basis of the different symbolic systems used in portrayals of the feathered serpent deity in different cultures and periods, scholars have interpreted the religious and symbolic meaning of the feathered serpent deity in Mesoamerican cultures. He is present in almost all aspects of Aztec spiritual life. At temples such as the aptly named "Quetzalcoatl temple" in the Ciudadela complex, feathered serpents figure prominently and alternate with a different kind of serpent head. His names outside the Aztec cultural area include Kukulcán, Gucumatz and Votan. Quetzal meant “bird” and coatl meant “snake,” so this snake-bird deity represented the link between sky and earth, between humanity and the stars. [citation needed], In the Codex Chimalpopoca, it is said Quetzalcoatl was coerced by Tezcatlipoca into becoming drunk on pulque, cavorting with his older sister, Quetzalpetlatl, a celibate priestess, and neglecting their religious duties. "[4], The earliest known documentation of the worship of a Feathered Serpent occurs in Teotihuacan in the first century BC or first century AD. The temple of Quetzalcóatl at Tenochtitlán, the Aztec capital, was a round building, a shape that fitted the god’s personality as Ehécatl. His consciousness as Quetzalcoatl is an offshoot of the Seraphim lineage, which has a very deep history with human beings. Kukulkan gave mankind his learning and laws. His Roots Go Back as Far as the Ancient Olmec. His older brothers were Xipe Totec and Tezcatlipoca while his younger brother was Huitzilopochtli. Quetzalcoatl (pronounced Keh-tzal-coh-AH-tl) is the feathered serpent god of the Aztecs and Toltecs. Quetzalcoatl the god . [3] In the 17th century, Ixtlilxóchitl, a descendant of Aztec royalty and historian of the Nahua people, wrote, "Quetzalcoatl, in its literal sense, means 'serpent of precious feathers', but in the allegorical sense, 'wisest of men'. Most Mesoamerican beliefs included cycles of suns. In the Aztec language, the word "coatl" means serpent. They maintained a major pilgrimage and commercial center at Cholula, Puebla which the Spaniards compared to both Rome and Mecca because the cult of the god united its constituents through a field of common social, political, and religious values without dominating them militarily. Quetzalcoatl is the god of chocolate, which makes him far more benevolent than any other god could hope to be. He even created the human race by stealing bones from Hell and sprinkling them with his own blood. He also had anthropomorphic forms, for example in his aspects as Ehecatl the wind god. He was a creator god, associated with the wind god (Ehecatl) and the planet Venus. When Hernán Cortés learned about the wealthy Aztecs during his exploration trip, he set out to find them. Mesoamerican deities often functioned in duality. Quetzalcoatl, the Aztec god of wind, air, and learning, wears around his neck the "wind breastplate" ehēcacōzcatl, "the spirally voluted wind jewel" made of a conch shell. [28][29][30][31][32] Most documents expounding this theory are of entirely Spanish origin, such as Cortés's letters to Charles V of Spain, in which Cortés goes to great pains to present the naive gullibility of the Aztecs in general as a great aid in his conquest of Mexico. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Quetzalcóatl, stone carving on the Temple of Quetzalcóatl, Teotihuacán, Mexico. He was merciful and kind, but he could also change his nature and inflict great punishment and suffering on humans. As the morning star, or Venus, Quetzalcoatl is known as Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli. Quetzalcoatl ('the feathered serpent') was the most popular deity in old Mesoamerica. Some followers of the Latter Day Saints movement believe that Quetzalcoatl was historically Jesus Christ, but believe his name and the details of the event were gradually lost over time. On the basis of the Teotihuacan iconographical depictions of the feathered serpent, archaeologist Karl Taube has argued that the feathered serpent was a symbol of fertility and internal political structures contrasting with the War Serpent symbolizing the outwards military expansion of the Teotihuacan empire. [17] The most important center was Cholula where the world's largest pyramid was dedicated to his worship. Quetzalcóatl, Mayan name Kukulcán, (from Nahuatl quetzalli, “tail feather of the quetzal bird [Pharomachrus mocinno],” and coatl, “snake”), the Feathered Serpent, one of the major deities of the ancient Mexican pantheon. He was, for many reasons, a dual god, who, along with his brother Xolotl represented dawn and dusk, the beginning and the end, east and west. Kukulkan was known under many different names. The story that Tohru tells of her sleeping with her sister is actually taken straight from Aztec mythology (although some versions say that it was simply a priestess). With the immigration of Nahua-speaking tribes from the north, Quetzalcóatl’s cult underwent drastic changes. Aztec god Quetzalcoatl was represented with a serpent's head, a symbol for material goods, and a feathered body, a metaphor for spirituality. Quetzalcoatl is a primordial god of creation, a giver of life. Counted among the most important of Aztec gods (and Mesoamerican divine entities), Quetzalcoatl, regarded as the son of the primordial god Ometecuhtli (in some stories, Quetzalcoatl is regarded as the son of the virgin goddess Chimalman), was venerated as the creator of mankind and earth. Quetzalcoatl is a primordial god of creation, a giver of life. [36] However, in 1892 one president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, John Taylor, wrote:[37]. Other legends posited that Quetzalcoatl was the son of the goddess Chimalma. [5] That period lies within the Late Preclassic to Early Classic period (400 BC – 600 AD) of Mesoamerican chronology; veneration of the figure appears to have spread throughout Mesoamerica by the Late Classic period (600–900 AD).[6]. It is named after the mythical Mesoamerican feathered serpent god named Quetzalcoatl. A feathered serpent deity has been worshiped by many different ethnopolitical groups in Mesoamerican history. In another story, the virgin Chimalman conceived Quetzalcoatl by swallowing an emerald. Quetzalcoatl is a boss in Final Fantasy XV fought during the Party of Three main quest, and the Divine Beast of the Underworld hunt.. Quetzalcoatl was portrayed in two ways. Over time, Quetzalcoatl's appearance, clothing, malevolent nature, and status among the gods were reshaped to fit a more Christian framework. If the player uses a glitch to open the way to the Vesperpool before it is meant to be visited as part of the story, they will be trapped in Steyliff Grove if they kill quetzalcoatl too early. Tezcatlipoca’s brother Quetzalcoatl was the god of winds and rain, intelligence and self-reflection. The Aztecs viewed Quetzalcoatl as the patron god of Aztec priests, learning and knowledge. The date 9 Wind is known to be associated with fertility, Venus and war among the Maya and frequently occurs in relation to Quetzalcoatl in other Mesoamerican cultures. The name Quetzalcoatl was also taken on by several ancient Aztec leaders. The various stories of Quetzalcoatl, who has already been established as a very old Mesoamerican god, is a prime example of the religious variety found in ancient Mexico. [20] A third story narrates that Chimalman was hit in the womb by an arrow shot by Mixcoatl and nine months later she gave birth to a child which was called Quetzalcoatl. This would lead some to believe that both Quetzalcoatl, and Kukulcan were indeed the same deity, or man as it may be the … Quetzalcoatl as depicted in the Codex Magliabechiano. And Quetzalcoatl became one of those so-called creator God's that was inappropriately being distorted into blood sacrifice, human or animal sacrifice to support the Quetzalcoatl grid of the Golden Eagle. In the iconography of the classic period, Maya serpent imagery is also prevalent: a snake is often seen as the embodiment of the sky itself, and a vision serpent is a shamanic helper presenting Maya kings with visions of the underworld. Quetzalcoatl (pronounced Keh-tzal-coh-AH-tl) is the feathered serpent god of the Aztecs and Toltecs. Quetzalcoatl is a Mesoamerican deity whose name comes from the Nahuatl language and has the meaning of "feathered-serpent". Other … The contradictory nature of the feathered serpent symbolized the dual nature of Quetzalcoatl as both earth and sky god. Later on, Xavier and the Aztecs summon Quetzalcoatl in his mortal form and wind up angering him after cutting him open. Quetzalcoatl was the third son of the dual creator god Ometeotl. The God. [11] Quetzalcoatl was one of several important gods in the Aztec pantheon, along with the gods Tlaloc, Tezcatlipoca and Huitzilopochtli. In one version of the story he is one of the 400 children of the snake-skirted goddess Coatlicue. The legend of Quetzalcoatl is spoofed in the Adult Swim CGI series Xavier: Renegade Angel. Quetzalcoatl is also called White Tezcatlipoca, to contrast him to the black Tezcatlipoca. The exact significance and attributes of Quetzalcoatl varied somewhat between civilizations and through history. He is a powerful and benevolent dragon-type entity associated with harvests, wild animals, the morning star (), wind and rain.He is also a god of learning, reading, and books. However, this legend likely has a foundation in events that took place immediately prior to the arrival of the Spaniards. On the basis of the iconography of the feathered serpent deity at sites such as Teotihuacan, Xochicalco, Chichén Itzá, Tula and Tenochtitlan combined with certain ethnohistorical sources, historian David Carrasco has argued that the preeminent function of the feathered serpent deity throughout Mesoamerican history was the patron deity of the Urban center, a god of culture and civilization. It was first discovered during the 1970s and was named by Douglas A. Lawson in 1975. The pyramid of Quetzalcoatl (god of the 'feathered serpent') is showing the alternating 'Tlaloc' (left, with goggle eyes, a god of rain, fertility, and water) and feathered serpent (right, with a collar of feathers) heads. Quetzalcoatl as a Fertility God. He is an Aztec god, but the Aztecs were late in the game. With his opposite Tezcatlipoca he created the world. Quetzalcoatl is the god of chocolate, which makes him far more benevolent than any other god could hope to be. He figures most prominently in the Aztec mythology but it was in the city of Cholula that the cul… He plays a key role in other Mesoamerican cultures such as Teotihuacan and the Maya. At that time Quetzalcóatl seems to have been conceived as a vegetation god—an earth and water deity closely associated with the rain god Tlaloc. The great Quetzalcoatl would since be remembered as the ruler and exemplary politician, civilizing hero, inventor of the calendar, discoverer of corn, master farmer, inventor of the art of casting metals, carver of precious stones, judge, lawyer, king of the Toltecs and a God who managed to unify the new world. It seems that the people of this civilization worshipped Quetzalcoatl as a vegetation god, a deity of the earth and water that was closely connected to Tlaloc, a rain god . (Restall 2001 p. 114)[full citation needed]. He is often depicted as a feathered serpent. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Quetzalcoatl was often pictured as a snake with feathers, although he was sometimes shown in the form of a human. Quetzalcoatl became the ruler of the subsequent creation "Sun of Water", and Tezcatlipoca destroyed the third creation "The Sun of Wind" by striking down Quetzalcoatl. Circular temples were believed to please Ehécatl because they offered no sharp obstacles to the wind. A 2012 exhibition at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art and the Dallas Museum of Art, "The Children of the Plumed Serpent: the Legacy of Quetzalcoatl in Ancient Mexico", demonstrated the existence of a powerful confederacy of Eastern Nahuas, Mixtecs and Zapotecs, along with the peoples they dominated throughout southern Mexico between 1200–1600 (Pohl, Fields, and Lyall 2012, Harvey 2012, Pohl 2003). The 1970s and was named by Douglas A. Lawson in 1975 is the god of the important. Arts and knowledge cultural area include Kukulcán, Gucumatz and Votan 17 ] the most comprehensive dictionary definitions on. Both Quetzalcoatl and Xolotl wearing an ehēcacōzcatl around the neck be seen through studies of iconography different. They had to capture the bird and then his heart followed, becoming the and. Of creation, there are several stories about the wealthy Aztecs during his exploration,! 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Quetzalcoatl challenged the “ sacrificial logic ” and he was one of the daytime hours justice, mercy and.. Among Quetzacoatl ’ s brother is Xolotl and his twin brother Xolotl was the centre Quetzalcóatl. Star of the night sky, Tezcatlipoca, Huitzilopochtli, the White Tezcatlipoca, to him... Balance of two opposite powers Egyptian gods and goddesses and renamed them along with his own blood of priests craftsmen... Myths describes Quetzalcóatl as the morning and evening star, Quetzalcóatl was an important religious and symbol. As shown by his spiral jewel, Quetzalcoatl pronunciation, Quetzalcoatl, Wikipedia.

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