Without an emperor to lead them, the Incas found it hard to resist the Spanish invasion. He also allowed Catholic missionaries to work among his people. In this paper we evaluate the impact of colonialism on development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Europe, in particular Britain, was able to industrialise because of raw materials obtained from colonies and because colonies provided markets for manufactured goods. For centuries Arabs had traded with African kingdoms such as Great Zimbabwe and Mwanamutapa in order to supply Arabia, the Persian Gulf, India and even China with African ivory and gold. The major European colonizers in SEA included Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, Britain, and France. The imperialism of South Africa effected the indigenous peoples and helped create a profiting society. The punishment of slaves was more strictly controlled. We can tell much about the slave society of the Cape by examining the legal records that have been left behind by the VOC and are now held by the Cape Archives in Cape Town. In this section you will look at how the expansion of European trade led to the establishment of fortified trading stations and eventually permanent European settlements in the Americas, Africa and India. The Portuguese introduced agricultural products grown in South America such as maize, sugar cane and tobacco. This brought the Dutch into conflict with the powerful Cochoqua chief, Gonnema, who refused to trade with the VOC. Colonialism is the act by which a country or state exerts control and domination over another country or state. Slave owners were allowed to use harsh punishment like whipping, withholding food, and making slaves work more hours. The number of hours the slaves could be made to work was limited. It is the language used by educated businessmen and politicians. He reached the Caribbean islands off what would later be called North and South America. The Araucanians adapted to the European style of warfare by making spears to fight the Spanish while they were on their horses. When in control of the Cape, the VOC sent slavers to Mozambique and Madagascar. By 1900, when the force of the quick colonization was over, the majority of the land in Africa was divided up amongst seven different European colonizing nations: Britain, France, Spain, Germany, Belgium, Italy, and Portugal. Either they could move into more remote and drier regions of the expanding colony or else they could become servants of the boers acting as trackers, herdsmen and shepherds. Source: wikipedia. Certain colonies were acquired for their strategic importance. Many of the slaves chose to remain on with their owners while some started a new life in and around Cape Town working as tradesmen. During the 1480s the Portuguese came into contact with the kingdom of the Kongo, situated south of the Congo river in what is today northern Angola. Therefore, as the Dutch settlement expanded, independent Khoikhoi communities were placed under unbearable pressure. During the fifteenth century the Portuguese began to explore the west coast of Africa. The Spaniards conquered the remaining Aztecs and took over their lands, forcing them to work in gold mines and on Spanish estates. It was only after the slave trade in Cape Town was banned that slave owners began to treat their slaves better. They managed to keep control by making alliances with warring clans and promising to help them against their enemies. The fi rst objective of colonialism is political domination. Colonies of exploitation included Indonesia and Malaya in South-East Asia, and Nigeria and Ghana in West Africa. The Portuguese encouraged wars between rival kingdoms to maintain a constant supply of slaves. Racial mixing occurred at the Cape, but it was never openly accepted like it was in colonies such as Brazil and Mexico. Jan van Riebeeck was appointed commander of this station. The Aztec and Inca Empires covered very large areas and consisted of millions of people. In terms of Roman-Dutch law, slaves were defined, first and foremost, as property. Trading stations were also established at Quilimane north of Sofala, and at Sena and Tete along the Zambezi River. Gradually these people became absorbed into the Cape community. The Arab settlers intermarried with the indigenous African people living along the east coast. Prior to this time, world superpowers such as Portugal, France, and Britain had already set up colonies in Africa. There is evidence of improved economic development outcomes within the colonial peri… Christian evangelists were intimately involved in the colonial process in southern Africa. In the Eastern Cape, many Khoikhoi people were absorbed into Xhosa society. How could slaves limit the power of slavery? Britain was colonized by the Angles, Danes, Jutes and Saxons and subsequently the Normans. Jan van Riebeeck, who founded the first colony at Cape Town in 1652, was an official of the Dutch East India Company. The story of Dina shows that severe beatings like these were very common even though the laws were written to avoid them. Freed slaves were also included into the Cape Coloured community. Pizarro then marched south and captured the Inca capital at Cuzco. Boer War, Southern Africa conflict circa 1900 between British colonialism and a Free South Africa Second Boer War 1899-1902 : Horse-drawn covered hospital cart with Indian driver used by British in South Africa during the Boer War. By the early sixteenth century the Portuguese had established a string of bases in Asia, including Hormuz at the tip of the Persian Gulf; Goa on the west coast of India and the Straits of Molucca in the East Indies. Sponsored by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain, the Italian navigator, Christopher Columbus, sailed west across the Atlantic in an effort to reach Asia in 1492. As the colonial trade became more competitive, trading stations grew into colonies of settlement. Batlle in the Subzee Mundee, a watercolour of the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857by British artist G F Atkinson. Therefore, slaves in the Cape were strictly controlled, and according to law, slaves could be severely punished for acts such as running away or failing to obey their owners’ orders. In fact, it was the speed with which change occurred that set the colonial era apart from earlier periods in South Africa. In short, the ownership of firearms turned into a status symbol and a means to gain political power. However, Africans were far from helpless victims in the initial encounter. Trading Stations Vasco NÁºÁ±ez de Balboa, a Spanish merchant, was considered the first of the conquistadors. Livingstone arrived in southern Africa at a time when the region was reeling from major demographic upheaval, violent frontier conflicts and extensive slave-raiding. They gained control over the fertile central region of present-day Chile. The australopithecines who roamed the highland savanna plains of Southern Africa date from about three million to one million years ago. Although they could to some extent live off fish caught from the ocean, mostly they were dependent for their survival on goods obtained from slaves who lived on surrounding farms, and from other runaways who lived as far away as Table Mountain across the Cape Flats. He got permission from the emperor of the King of Spain, Charles V to conquer this land and become its governor. However, the indigenous languages have survived among the rural population. In reaction, the trekboers formed themselves into military groups called 'commandos' and attacked the Khoikhoi in order to get back their cattle. Pizarro heard tales of a southern land rich in gold. Reijnier, who had come from Madagascar, was the property of the free burgher, Matthijs Krugel. In October 1837, Dina was working in her master’s cattle kraal, loading cattle dung onto the wagon. In modern Angola, about ninety per cent of the population is Christian, mainly Catholic, as a result of Portuguese missionary activity in the area. The Portuguese replaced Arab control of the trade in ivory, gold and slaves with their own. The British occupied the Cape again in 1806, and in 1814 the Cape officially became a British colony. At first, the Dutch were primarily concerned with supplying their ships with fresh produce as they rounded the Cape en route to the spice-producing islands of the Indonesian archipelago. He never ventured too far from the settler farms, and it is probably this that led to his eventual capture. As recently as May 2002, the Anti-Slavery Society reported that “Millions of children are in slavery. The most important of these cities were Zanzibar, Kilwa, Mombasa, Mozambique Island and Sofala. Colonies were important sources of raw materials (such as raw cotton) and markets for manufactured goods (such as textiles). Countries with large empires were respected and admired. The story of Reijnier is based on the records of a criminal trial. The powerful Ottoman Empire blocked European access to markets in the East. There is evidence that the slaves knew about their rights and made use of them. Since they came from such different places of origin, they would probably have communicated with each other in a type of pidgin. In other areas the British appointed Indians as princes and put them in charge. The Portuguese regarded this as a continuation of the 'holy Christian war' they had been fighting against the Muslims in Europe for centuries. 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