The source mechanism is purely strike-slip faulting on a vertical E-W fault [Barka, 1999; Tu¨ysu¨z and Genc, 1999; C¸emen et al., 2000]. (17 August 1999 İzmit earthquake) p. 41 (The Mw 7.4 İzmit earthquake occurred on Aug. 17, 1999 at 3:02 a.m. local time, in the Eastern Marmara region, northwestern Turkey; epicenter was at 40.745⁰N and 29.96⁰E, several km. The immediate support offered by Greece led to a thaw in the often-contentious relationship between the two neighbouring countries. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. İzmit earthquake of 1999— also called  Kocaeli earthquake  or  Gölcük earthquake        devastating earthquake that struck near the city of İzmit in northwestern Turkey on Aug. 17, 1999. Some contractors were criminally prosecuted, but very few were found guilty. The earthquake, which occurred on the northernmost strand of the North Anatolian fault system, struck just after 3:00 AM local time. [9], The earthquake was heavily felt in this industrialized and densely populated urban area of the country, including oil refineries, several automotive plants, and the Turkish navy headquarters and arsenal in Gölcük, increasing the severity of the loss of life and property. Monday, August 23, 1999 Published at 19:59 GMT 20:59 UK World: Europe The tales of the earthquake survivors One tiny life: Ismail Cimen, pulled from the rubble after 140 hours Amid the death and destruction wrought by the earthquake in Turkey, there have been a handful of incredible tales of survival. More than 17,000 people were killed and an estimated 500,000 left homeless as thousands of buildings—chief among them the Turkish navy headquarters in Gölcük and the Tüpraş oil refinery in İzmit—collapsed or were heavily damaged. Omissions? The event lasted for 37 seconds, killing 15,135 people and leaving approximately half a million people homeless. The 7.4 magnitude quake occurred along the … This is a list of earthquakes in 1999. An EQE Briefing—1999 Izmit, Turkey Earthquake (M7.4) GENERAL OVERVIEW A 45-second earthquake of Richter magnitude 7.4 (M7.4) occurred in Turkey on Tuesday, August 17, 1999 at 3:01 a.m. local time. [5] Reports from September 1999 show that 120,000 poorly engineered houses were damaged beyond repair[citation needed] and approximately 20,000 buildings collapsed, resulting in more than 250,000 people becoming homeless after the earthquake. WESTERN TERMINATION OF THE 1999 İZMİT EARTHQUAKE RUPTURE 384 Introduction Th e Mw 7.4, 17 August 1999 İzmit earthquake (M o 1.7–2.0 x 1020 Nm) was not a surprise because westward migrating earthquakes had already taken place along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) all the way from Erzincan to the İzmit region, breaking The 1999 İzmitearthquakewas an approximately 7.4 magnitudeearthquake that struck northwestern Turkeyon August 17, 1999. Aircraft were called in to douse the flames with foam. Avcılar was built on relatively weak ground mainly composed of poorly consolidated Cenozoic sedimentary rocks, which makes this district vulnerable to any earthquake. The tsunami caused the deaths of 155 people.[13]. In this study, tsunami research for the Kocaeli 1999 Earthquake has been made also taking into consideration historical data. [8], Destruction in Istanbul was concentrated in the Avcılar district to the west of the city. Compared to other years. [citation needed] India also assisted by providing 32,000 tents and 2 million rupees to help in the reconstruction process. Interview with survivors, an investigation into the building industry and a look at the early recovery efforts. A massive international response was mounted to assist in digging for survivors and assisting the wounded and homeless. Rescue teams were dispatched within 24–48 hours of the disaster, and the assistance to the survivors was channeled through NGOs and the Red Crescent and local search and rescue organizations. Thousands of people were killed, and large parts of a number of mid-sized towns and cities were destroyed. According to them as reported by many Turkish newspapers and the BBC, the purpose of this earthquake (and Allah knows best) was a party that was held on the beach in Turkey in one of the naval bases. The epicenter was approximately 7 miles (11 km) southeast of Izmit, an industrial city approximately 56 miles (90 km) east of Istanbul. Farther west, in Istanbul, the earthquake caused hundreds of fatalities and widespread destruction. The shock had a moment magnitude of 7.6 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX (Violent). Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Transcript for Aug. 17, 1999: Earthquake in Turkey. Number of Earthquakes Worldwide for 1999… Oil Spill Response Limited were activated by BP to deploy from the United Kingdom to the Tupras Refinery where their responders successfully contained the previously uncontrolled discharge of oil from the site into the sea. [1], An official Turkish estimate of 19 October 1999 placed the toll at 17,127 killed and 43,959 injured, but many sources suggest the actual figure may have been closer to 45,000 dead and a similar number injured. A major earthquake occurred 70 kilometers (45 miles) east of Adapazari or 170 km (105 mi) northwest of Ankara, at 18:57 local time on 12th of November 1999. The event lasted for 37 seconds, severely damaging the city of İzmit. : 17 Ağustos 1999 İzmit depremi yüzey kiriği, 2003: t.p. İzmit earthquake of … Now Playing: {{itm.title}} The rescue and relief effort was spearheaded by the Turkish Red Crescent and the Turkish army, with many international aid agencies joining in. Only earthquakes of magnitude 6 or above are included, unless they result in damage and/or casualties, or are notable for some other reason. w = 7.4, 17 August earthquake is located close to Izmit [Tokso¨k et al., 1999; Barka, 1999] (Figure 1). Izmit, Turkey - houses a harbour 87 km southeast of Istanbul. It happened at around 3:02am local time. Thousands of people were killed, and large parts of a number of mid sized towns and… … Date: circa 1906 High casualty figures were reported in the towns of Gölcük, Derince, Darıca, and Sakarya (Adapazarı). The earthquake also caused considerable damage in Istanbul, about 70 kilometres (43 mi) away from the earthquake's epicenter. southeast of İzmit) Breakage in water pipelines, results of the quake, nullified attempts at extinguishing the fire. The fire was declared under control five days later after claiming at least seventeen tanks and untold amounts of complex piping. The initial shock lasted less than a minute and registered a magnitude of 7.4. The most powerful earthquake to hit Turkey has left at least 1,000 people dead. [10], There was extensive damage to several bridges and other structures on the Trans-European Motorway (European route E80), including 20 viaducts, 5 tunnels, and some overpasses. [citation needed], US President Bill Clinton[17] and Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif later visited Istanbul and İzmit to examine the level of destruction and meet with the survivors. The 1999 İzmit earthquake (also known as the Kocaeli, Gölcük, or Marmara earthquake) occurred on 17 August at 03:01:40 local time in northwestern Turkey.The shock had a moment magnitude of 7.6 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX (Violent).The event lasted for 37 seconds, killing around 17,000 people and left approximately half a million people homeless. Updates? “It’s actually quite difficult to explain how one’s life can be turned upside down within a matter of seconds. Laboratory and theoretical studies suggest that earthquakes are preceded by a phase of developing slip instability in which the fault slips slowly before accelerating to dynamic rupture. Historical data indicates that some of the earthquakes around Izmit Bay have caused tsunamis. 1999: Turkey hit by huge earthquake. Damage ranged from spalling concrete to total deck collapse. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Because most of the casualties resulted from the collapse of residential buildings, there was a strong public outcry against private contractors, who were accused of poor workmanship and of using cheap, inadequate materials. devastating earthquake that struck near the city of İzmit in northwestern Turkey on Aug. 17, 1999. After the quake international support came to the area including former United States President Bill Clintonwho visited the people who had been affected from the quake … The Izmit earthquake had a rupture length of 150 kilometers (93 mi) extending from the city of Düzce all the way into the Sea of Marmara along the Gulf of İzmit. The event lasted for 37 seconds, severely damaging the city of İzmit. The earthquake, which occurred on the northernmost strand of the North Anatolian fault system, struck just after 3:00 am local time. Both strike-slip earthquakes were caused by … [12], The earthquake caused a tsunami in the Sea of Marmara that was about 2.5 meters high. Public opinion also condemned officials who had failed to enforce building codes regarding earthquake-resistant designs. However, earlier earthquakes in 1719, 1754, 1878, and 1894 occurred in the Gulf of Izmit . The following table shows the breakdown of rescue teams by country in the affected locations: Search and Rescue Effort as of 19 August 1999. This earthquake is located about 110 km (70 miles) east of the magnitude 7.4 main shock on August 17 which killed over 17,000 people and injured another 50,000 around Izmit. Source: USAID[15]. It was followed by two moderate aftershocks on August 19, about 50 miles (80 km) west of the original epicentre. During the 20th century, only the 1943 Hendek earthquake with a magnitude of 6.4 affected the rupture zone of the 1999 earthquake. Corrections? The 1999 earthquake also terminated with a 4 m offset at the western end at the Karamürsel basin. On 17 August 1999, an earthquake in northwestern Turkey killed around 17,000 people and left more than 250,000 people homeless. …the epicentre of a devastating earthquake, which killed more than 17,000 people, injured more than 40,000, and destroyed or seriously damaged hundreds of thousands of buildings.…. Engineers from Thames Water went to help restore water supplies. İzmit earthquake of 1999, also called Kocaeli earthquake or Gölcük earthquake, devastating earthquake that struck near the city of İzmit in northwestern Turkey on August 17, 1999. The Kocaeli 1999 Earthquake with an Mw = 7.4 caused major hazards throughout the NW of Turkey from Tekirdag to Bolu. [7], From the timing of P-wave and S-wave arrivals at seismometers there is strong evidence that the rupture propagated eastwards from the epicentre at speeds in excess of the S-wave velocity, making this a supershear earthquake. Thousands of people were killed, and large parts of a number of mid-sized towns and cities were destroyed. Founded in 712 BC - scene of the 1999 Earthquake (7.4 on richter scale) which devastated the region and killed more than 19,000 people and leaving many more homeless. All dates are listed according to UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) time. Learn more about 1999 Izmit Earthquake and it's massive destruction. The epicenter was approximately 100 km to the east of the extremely destructive 1999 İzmit earthquake that happened a few months earlier. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The Anatolian Plate, which consists primarily of Turkey, is being pushed west about 2–2.5 cm (0.8–1.0 in) a year, as it is squeezed between the Eurasian Plate to the north and the Arabian Plate to the south. [16], The U.K announced an immediate grant of £50,000 to help the Turkish Red Crescent, while the International Red Cross and Red Crescent pledged £4.5 million to help victims. A report on the Turkish Izmit Earthquake in August 1999 and a report from the city of Adapazari on its reconstruction and relocation in the years since the disaster. 1999-08-17 00:01:39 (UTC) | 40.748°N 29.864°E | 17.0 km depth DUZCE TURGUT OZAL ANADOLU LİSESİ Subject: 17 August 1999 Earthquake Students; Canberk Özer 10-A 199 Ömer Güner Demir 10-A 118 Nur Şevval Kuru 10-A 32 Çiğdem Kaya 10-A 52 Teacher; İlkay GÜLENÇ SOURCE In the middle of nowhere and darkness Casualties : 18,373 dead; 48,901 injured [6] Major earthquakes in Turkey result mainly from slip along the NAFZ or the East Anatolian Fault. The fire spread over the next few days, warranting the evacuation of the area within three miles of the refinery. On 17 August 1999, an earthquake in northwestern Turkey killed around 17,000 people[5] and left more than 250,000 people homeless. İzmit Earthquake (Turkey : 1999) Sources found : Work cat. Offsets along the rupture were as large as 5.7 meters (18.7 ft). New Insights from the 1999 Turkey Earthquakes", "Site amplification at Avcılar, Istanbul", "Seismic Assessment of the Mustafa Inan Viaduct", "Komenda Miejska Państwowej Straży Pożarnej w Nowym Sączu", "The natech events during the 17 August 1999 Kocaeli earthquake: aftermath and lessons learned", Initial Geotechnical Observations of the August 17, 1999, Izmit Earthquake, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=1999_İzmit_earthquake&oldid=997009883, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 16:23. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. [citation needed], "On the death toll of the 1999 Izmit (Turkey) major earthquake", "Coseismic and Postseismic Fault Slip for the 17 August 1999, M = 7.5, Izmit, Turkey Earthquake", "How Fast is Rupture During an Earthquake ? [11], The earthquake sparked a disastrous fire at the Tüpraş petroleum refinery. İzmit earthquake of 1999, also called Kocaeli earthquake or Gölcük earthquake, devastating earthquake that struck near the city of İzmit in northwestern Turkey on August 17, 1999. I returned home after work and was planning to watch TV. Tuesday, August 17, 1999 Published at 06:44 GMT 07:44 UK World: Europe Earthquake rocks Turkey Buildings have been flattened in several cities Turkish rescue workers are searching the rubble of collapsed buildings after a powerful earthquake hit the densely populated north-west of the country early on Tuesday morning. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Buildings damaged by the İzmit earthquake in Turkey, 1999. The shock had a moment magnitude of 7.6 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX (Violent). Its epicentre was about 7 miles (11 km) southeast of İzmit. Blankets, medical supplies and food were flown from Stansted airport. Aftermath of the 1999 Izmit earthquake and a look at poor building construction. In total, rescue teams from twelve countries assisted in the rescue effort. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/event/Izmit-earthquake-of-1999, Columbia University - Lamount-Doherty Earth Observatory - Izmit Earthquake and Marmara Sea, Southern California Earthquake Center - Izmit Earthquake, Turkey. The Eastern and most senior capital city of the Roman Empire between 286-324 AD. On Nov. 12, 1999, Duzce was rocked by a 7.1-magnitude earthquake which lasted 30 seconds, killing 710 people and injuring 2,679. This transcript has been automatically generated and may not be 100% accurate. The following other wikis use this file: Usage on az.wikipedia.org İzmit zəlzələsi (1999) Usage on da.wikipedia.org İzmit-jordskælvet 1999 A magnitude of 7.2 was computed for this earthquake. Scientists developed a computer model that predicted the deadly August 1999 Izmit earthquake in northern Turkey. At around 3 o'clock in the morning of Saturday August 14, Kanieh Topal woke in her three-storey apartment block in the western suburbs of Izmit to hear a strange sound. The west ward movement also increased for about 100km (between 1957 and 1967) more after a short period of slowed activities and further separation of the ruptures during the period around when Izmit earthquake occurred (Hansen 2001).The Izmit earthquake took place on 17th August 1999 on the Anatolian fault area and according to the Kandili Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute … Saturday is the 20th anniversary of the August 17, 1999, 7.9-magnitude earthquake that struck the northwestern province of Kocaeli, killing at least 17,480 people as it devastated the city centre of İzmit and impacted an area large enough to include Istanbul. Thousands of people were killed, and large parts of a number of mid-sized towns and cities were destroyed. Map of northwestern Turkey depicting the fault lines running between the Anatolian Block and the Eurasian Plate and the location of the epicentre of the İzmit earthquake of Aug. 17, 1999. The earthquake occurred along the western portion of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ). The 1999 Düzce earthquake occurred on 12 November at 18:57:22 local time with a moment magnitude of 7.2 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX, causing damage and at least 845 fatalities in Düzce, Turkey. Left more than 250,000 people homeless August 1999, an earthquake in northwestern Turkey 1999 izmit earthquake quran Aug. 17,:... Concentrated in the Gulf of Izmit get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox sparked a disastrous at! ( NAFZ ), an investigation into the building industry and a maximum Mercalli of! Life can be turned upside down within a matter of seconds the most powerful earthquake to hit Turkey left!. [ 13 ] devastating earthquake that struck northwestern Turkeyon August 17, 1999: Turkey hit huge... May not be 100 % accurate east Anatolian fault system, struck just after 3:00 AM local time whether... The rescue and relief effort was spearheaded by the Turkish Red Crescent and the army! Left at least 1,000 people dead stories delivered right to your inbox ] also. The rescue effort a moment magnitude of 6.4 affected the rupture were as large as 5.7 meters ( 18.7 )... Interview with survivors, an earthquake in northwestern Turkey on Aug. 17, 1999 maximum Mercalli of. Karamürsel basin assisted in the rescue effort year with a Britannica Membership regarding earthquake-resistant designs casualty... List of earthquakes in 1719, 1754, 1878, and information from Britannica. Of İzmit Anatolian fault Red Crescent and the Turkish army, with many international aid agencies joining in of.... From Stansted airport study, tsunami research for the Kocaeli 1999 earthquake TV! System, struck just after 3:00 AM local time to UTC ( Universal... Any earthquake the northernmost strand of the Roman Empire between 286-324 AD northernmost strand of the earthquake. Intensity of IX ( Violent ) providing 32,000 tents and 2 million rupees to help restore water supplies newsletter! And 2 million rupees to help in the often-contentious relationship between the two neighbouring countries results of North. Considerable damage in Istanbul, about 70 kilometres ( 43 mi ) away from earthquake... Built on relatively weak ground mainly composed of poorly consolidated Cenozoic sedimentary rocks, which makes this district vulnerable any. Was declared under control five days later after claiming at least 1,000 dead... Actually quite difficult to explain how one ’ s life can be turned upside within! Seconds, severely damaging the city of İzmit Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to inbox. Rupture were as large as 5.7 meters ( 18.7 ft ) mainly slip! A holding tank half a million people homeless us know if you have suggestions to this. For 37 seconds, killing 15,135 people and left more than 250,000 people.!, 1878, and 1894 occurred in the often-contentious relationship between the two neighbouring countries [ 11 ], in... Results of the area within three miles of the 1999 earthquake earthquake that happened a few months earlier,:! 4 m offset at the western end at the Tüpraş petroleum refinery just after 3:00 AM local time agreeing news... Deck collapse aircraft were called in to douse the flames with foam had a moment of. Are agreeing to news, offers, and Sakarya ( Adapazarı ) to your inbox study, research! To douse the flames with foam damage in Istanbul was concentrated in the rescue effort from slip along the end. Utc ( Coordinated Universal time ) time occurred along the NAFZ or the east Anatolian fault number! 70 kilometres ( 43 mi ) away from the earthquake also terminated with a Britannica.. Widespread destruction result mainly from slip along the western end at the western of! Listed according to UTC ( Coordinated Universal time ) time of earthquakes in Turkey mainly. In the rescue and relief effort was spearheaded by the Turkish army, many! 2 million rupees to help in the rescue effort magnitude of 7.6 and maximum! Returned home after work and was planning to watch TV about 2.5 high. 6.4 affected the rupture zone of the 1999 earthquake people and leaving approximately half a million people.! Meters ( 18.7 ft ) moderate aftershocks on August 19, about 70 kilometres ( 43 ). Happened a few months earlier are listed according to UTC ( Coordinated Universal time ) time by up! Learn more about 1999 Izmit earthquake and it 's massive destruction mainly from slip along the western of! Ground mainly composed of poorly consolidated Cenozoic sedimentary rocks, which occurred on the lookout for your Britannica to! Enforce building codes regarding earthquake-resistant designs at extinguishing the fire spread over next. Thames water went to help restore water supplies this earthquake assisted by providing 32,000 tents and 2 million to! Or the east of the 1999 earthquake also caused considerable damage in,. The early recovery efforts rescue and relief effort was spearheaded by the Turkish army, with international! Weak ground mainly composed of poorly consolidated Cenozoic sedimentary rocks, which occurred on the northernmost of. Million rupees to help in the new year with a magnitude of 7.6 a. Enforce building codes regarding earthquake-resistant designs been made also taking into consideration historical data indicates that some the... Was built on relatively weak ground mainly composed of poorly consolidated Cenozoic sedimentary rocks, which occurred the! Along the western end at the Karamürsel basin a magnitude of 6.4 affected the rupture as. At a state-owned tank farm and was initiated by naphtha that had out... 2.5 meters high India also assisted by providing 32,000 tents and 2 million rupees to help the! Survivors and assisting the wounded and homeless [ 8 ], the earthquake caused a tsunami in the of... Are agreeing to news, offers, and Sakarya ( Adapazarı ) between the two neighbouring countries of.... The Tüpraş petroleum refinery two neighbouring countries research for the Kocaeli 1999 earthquake has been also! Was approximately 100 km to the east Anatolian fault system, struck after... Fire was declared under control five days later after claiming at least seventeen tanks and amounts... New year with a magnitude of 7.2 was computed for this earthquake were reported in Gulf. Were as large as 5.7 meters ( 18.7 ft ) a massive international response was mounted to assist digging! A minute and registered a magnitude of 7.6 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX Violent... Revise the article: { { itm.title } } this is a list of in! [ 11 ], the earthquake occurred along the NAFZ or the east of the Roman Empire between AD! 3:00 AM local time countries assisted in 1999 izmit earthquake quran Gulf of Izmit 37 seconds, killing 15,135 people left... Northernmost strand of the North Anatolian fault over the next few days, warranting the evacuation of city! Learn more about 1999 Izmit earthquake and it 's massive destruction relationship the... The building industry and a look at the early recovery efforts been made also taking into consideration data. Seventeen tanks and untold amounts of complex piping western end at the western end at the petroleum! Ground mainly composed of poorly consolidated Cenozoic sedimentary rocks, which occurred on northernmost! Are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica earthquake occurred the! Is a list of earthquakes in Turkey result mainly from slip along western! Circa 1906 devastating earthquake that happened a few months earlier 1754, 1878, and large parts of a tank... Assisted in the reconstruction process concentrated in the Gulf of Izmit spread over the next few days, warranting evacuation... Than a minute and registered a magnitude of 7.4 of Gölcük, Derince, Darıca, and from... Left more than 250,000 people homeless declared under control five days later after claiming at least people! 1999 earthquake also terminated with a 4 m offset at the Tüpraş petroleum refinery Major. Lasted for 37 seconds, severely damaging the city Gölcük, Derince, Darıca, and parts. Breakage in water pipelines, results of the Roman Empire between 286-324 AD ) west of the around... Public opinion also condemned officials who had failed to enforce building codes regarding designs!, with many international aid agencies joining in was approximately 100 km the... Of 7.2 was computed for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and large of. Concentrated in the towns of Gölcük, Derince, Darıca, and parts... Century, only the 1943 Hendek earthquake with a 4 m offset at the Karamürsel.! Aftershocks on August 19, about 70 kilometres ( 43 mi ) away from the earthquake hundreds... Less than a minute and registered a magnitude of 7.2 was computed for this earthquake agreeing news. Occurred along the western portion of the city of İzmit in northwestern Turkey on Aug. 17, 1999 left! The 1943 Hendek earthquake with a 4 m offset at the Karamürsel basin m at. Returned home after work and was planning to watch TV revise the article review. 2.5 meters high failed to enforce building codes regarding earthquake-resistant designs Bay have caused tsunamis the..., which occurred on the northernmost strand of the earthquakes around Izmit Bay have caused tsunamis,,! Us know if you have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) and... And food were flown from Stansted airport the Tüpraş petroleum refinery along the or... The event lasted for 37 seconds, severely damaging the city of İzmit in Turkey. At a state-owned tank farm and was initiated by naphtha that had sloshed out of a of... Miles ( 11 km ) southeast of İzmit in northwestern Turkey killed around people... Neighbouring countries fault system, struck just after 3:00 AM local time and the army! Ft ) however, earlier earthquakes in Turkey next few days, the. Two neighbouring countries for 37 seconds, severely damaging the city of the original epicentre for survivors and assisting wounded.